Validation & Reliability

EPT and its validation and reliability


Since we developed the EPT, we have attempted to assess its validity and reliability.

Validity can generally be described as a measure of how well it measures what we want to measure.
EPT has the ambition to measure how well a person’s personality will fit into the archetypes that have been described.

Validity is based upon a strong correlation between the theoretical definition and the operational definition. The answers in EPT are therefore presented in two parts – Personality Profile as well as Entrepreneurial Profile.

Does EPT measure what it claims to measure?
To answer this question, one should use different validity definitions.

Conceptual validity is a central focus, and this is the question of how well the test measures abstract psychological concepts such as flexibility or strength of will.
In practice, you measure the frequency with which the results correlate with other well-established tests. Since there is no equivalent test, the future examination of the test may lead to a better assessment of this.
The experiences that we gain with testing of different people will provide a basis for a more thorough assessment of the validity.

Reliability is another concept. Reliability indicates how reliable the test is. The reliability in the assessment of the archetype is how consistent the different archetypes are.
It is clear that there are some differences among the various features of the archetypes, but there are several common denominators. It is also possible that a person can move in and out of the different archetypes in different stages of his/her development.
Reliability measures how reliable the test is in terms of distinguishing the described archetypes. It is a question of measuring accuracy and how well the test differentiates among the archetypes. The experiences we have of the test are likely dependent on the fact that the test is most often used by people who have an orientation towards entrepreneurship. What remains to proceed with the assessment of reliability is to allow the same individuals to come back to see how consistent their answers are on different measurement occasions.

Response congruence. Not so many tests that are based on or partly based on self-estimates, sometimes called self-assessed –  measures response congruence. EPT measures response congruence, and in %, which is rounded off in the results answers to the nearest five or ten numbers. i.e., 60%, 70%, 85%, etc.

– information on congruence

Congruence = conformity, uniformity, compliance, unity, agreement. This implies a species of equivalence. As an abstract term, congruence means similarity between. The concept of congruence is generally considered to refer to personal awareness and understanding of oneself as well as one’s ability to communicate it truthfully.

Congruence is the harmony between what you feel and what you express. Therefore, we can define congruence as a balance that exists between your innermost state (your “gut feeling”) and the externalization you translate it into, in terms of behavior – both verbal and non-verbal. In other words, when you are congruent, what you feel and what you externalize are in harmony with each other.

Sometimes mentioned as – inner coherence in the personality. If you say that you want to be a certain way, but in reality work and experience yourself in a different way, there is incongruity

A semblance of more detailed evidence can also be found below at Response congruence. More about our research in this area, in –

‘’Face Validity’’ much as ‘’apparent’’ or ‘’obvious’’ validity indicates if the test at first glance appears to measure what it intends to measure.
This may be important to ensure, as a test in that a person may need to perceive the test as relevant to feel motivated to take it.
EPT has proved to have surprisingly high face validity as we have experienced test runs of up to about 5.000 tests performed in Sweden alone. And in the year 2020 over 24.500 tests in Sweden, before we in March launch it in English, and passed 26.000 in November 2020, 27.000 in 2021-09-23, and 30.000 in 2023-03-08.


More on reliability

Several tests refer to a Cronbach Alpha or Tau-equivalent reliability that is a single-administration test score reliability (i.e., the reliability of persons over items holding occasion fixed coefficient, commonly referred [1][2][3] What Does Different Test measure  to as Cronbach’s alpha or coefficient alpha is the most famous and commonly used among reliability coefficients.

But recent studies recommend not using it unconditionally.[4][5][6][7] What Does Different Test measure

Reliability coefficients based on structural equation modeling are often recommended as its alternative.

This coefficient  Cronbach’s alpha measures whether questions belonging to the same scale produce similar scores and so does EPT´s response congruence with the difference if the same questions over several different contexts still from the responder is given the same answer as previous measures (inputs) and therefore the same accuracy.

Cronbach’s alpha measures the reliability of the question itself, but cannot determine the reliability of the person answering the question. EPT response congruence – measures more than that.

Lindstrom’s research about congruence in different tests in What Does Different Personality Test and Behavioral measure… – Google Scholar

more on Validity & Rebillity on

What is the Difference Between Validity & Reliability? | Questionmark



EPT- EntrepreneurProfileTest – is developed by Stefan Lindstrom specialist in Entrepreneurial management, (Entreprenologist), and is based on research (ResearchGate) about entrepreneurs like Lindstrom both studied and observed in his research and himself contributed to, and Hans-Olle Frummerin (Licensed psychologist). This after an idea by  Nicklas_Mattsson at that time, chief of the Swedish magazine Entreprenör.
Lindstrom and Frummerin have created the test, based on Lindstrom’s knowledge of and research about entrepreneurs, and use and knowledge of behavioural tests as well as Frummerin’s knowledge of psychology, and personality as well as psychological tests.

Both as management consultants within organizational development


Best regards


Stefan Lindstrom Entreprenologist and MBA & Hans-Olle Frummerin Lic. Psychologist and M.Sc.


Since 2010 EPT has been updated by Lindstrom in 2017 as well as launched in English 2020.

© 2010-2023 Stefan Lindstrom